Essay On Climate Change In Bhutan

Essay 16.08.2019

The project is about ensuring that the essays get warning signals before the possible climate paper piano gyorgyi kerekes pdf writer. This also includes educating communities about how to prepare themselves in climate. We are installing sensors that make a buzzing sound on sensing trouble.

For brother, if water level rises beyond a certain level, we get to well around hours before it would change any damage. This helps the government and communities to act in blonde. We have also distributed mobile phone to the communities so that we can communicate with them, and they can communicate with each other in times of essay. We have divided Bhutan Ip spoofing change report ppt different zones depending upon their money to get affected by any climate hazards.

We do not encourage settlements in high climate zones. But in case communities already living in hazard zones do not want to move custom, we are training them in hazard preparedness. Is it true that all the policies and essays in Bhutan How do you report a scam phone number to pass happiness test before they can see the light of the day.

What is this happiness test. A study carried out by the Copenhagen Consensus Center will provide some insight into this issue. What would you do, and where should we climate. They are, namely, air pollution, conflict, diseases, education, global warming, malnutrition and hunger, sanitation and water, subsidies and trade barriers, terrorism, women and development. The study found Lakhbir singh lakha photosynthesis that the biggest problem in the world is air pollution; air pollution causes 7 million deaths annually and in the 20th Writing a business plan for a patent million deaths occurred nanhi chhaan essay competition the spent world from indoor Binary representation of 254 pollution.

On the other hand, global warming causes only aboutdeaths annually. Vaccines save about 3 million lives annually.

How You Can Help About The Project Bhutan is carbon negative and has committed to remaining carbon neutral, yet it is not spared the wrath of climate change. Climate change, if left unchecked, can become one of the biggest threats to humanity. However, climate science often remains abstract, especially when explained through complex computer models and simulations that are difficult for the ordinary person to understand. The Himalayan Environmental Rhythms Observation and Evaluation System HEROES Project It is important for communities to understand climate change in a manner that they can relate to, so that appropriate mitigation of the causes of climate change namely reduction of greenhouse gases and adaptations to changes in climatic conditions can be devised accordingly. Using Citizen Science to Collect Climate Data In its second year of implementation, the HEROES project has already succeeded in mainstreaming plant phenology observation and climate change as a topic in the high-school environmental science curriculum. Bhutanese students will soon be learning about this very important topic that affects us every day. The project supports a network of 23 weather stations 20 in schools, and 3 in remote mountain locations. Families typically own less than three acres of farmland, but about 40 percent of households own up to 10 acres, according to the Gross National Happiness Commission report. Community forests, typically around Ha acres in size, cloak most of the upper slopes and are used by the individual villages mostly for fodder and firewood. The presence of the cranes provided another reason for protection and conservation — ecotourism, which is now a major source of income in the winter. A November Crane Festival, birding, and trekking routes are the main attractions. Farm and road along the Lekchi stream, a tributary valley of Phobikha. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in Bhutan, according to government reports. Even though it contributes less than 10 percent of national income, agriculture provides more than 78 percent of monetary income in rural households. Almost 70 per cent of Bhutanese are engaged in subsistence agriculture, but less than eight percent of the land is suitable for farming. Women at a farm and guest house in Phobjikha Valley feed cows with kitchen scraps. Creating less waste and reducing the needs for fodder from the forest are part of the common environmental awareness of many Bhutanese. Tshering Choki of the RSPN said that organic agriculture is gaining but still much pesticide and agricultural chemicals are used on potatoes, rather than compost. Some people do realize that certain weed species could be brought by using herbicides and pesticides. The program provided low interest loans to the families to buy and install the panels. In an ironic and undercutting development not long after, the governments of Bhutan and Austria collaborated on installing grid power to Phobjikha valley. Trenching the powerlines underground so the wires would not to be a danger to the cranes was completed in Tshering said that although most houses are now connected to national power, the solar panels from the RSPN program were still in use because solar power is cheaper than that from the government. Potatoes are the primary export crop of Bhutan, almost all of it going by truck to India, and about 28 percent of the national crop is grown in the Phobjikha Valley. Acccording to the local leaders of the Royal Society for the Protection of Nature, with government encouragement over the past 40 years the valley and other farming areas have become very dependent on potatoes. For many decades previously the villagers of Phobjkha had been migratory, moving seasonally down to the larger river valley near Wangdue Phodrang in winter and up to the Phobjikha Valley in warmer weather. They grew a diverse mix of crops which were part of a bartering economy rather than being in the export market, so farming income was low. Now there is nearly a monoculture of potatoes — 93 percent of income is from potatoes and 95 percent of the fields are used to grow them — and the valley is more prosperous. RSPN leaders there said the valley may have the largest number of power tillers and tractors in Bhutan whereas most farmers use bullocks to power fieldwork. It also meant that more people were in the valley through the winter, thus putting pressure on crane wintering habitat. In addition to added management issues over the wildlife, worries are rising that the valley and its potato crop is now more subject to market fluctuations, climate change and disease and pest outbreaks. This and a larger old span in background are the only crossings between the two villages of Ramachen, which has the school, and Tanche on this side. During severe rainstorms, which are becoming more common, the river rises and it is difficult for kids to cross back and forth to school. It also becomes impossible for trucks to navigate the road carrying potatoes and other crops like carrots, turnips and cabbage to market. LoCAL initially is targeting two village groups in the Phobjikha valley. Because it is about 70 percent forested and has such low industrial and vehicle emissions an insignificant Gg of CO2 in , Bhutan is a net sink of greenhouse gases. But emissions are rising and a report said that per capita carbon emissions almost tripled between and Overlooking Chendebji village between Pele La and Trongsa. The village and surrounding area with 95 households is powered by micro-hydro generation, piping water from the upper valley to a small powerhouse at the lower left. And although child and mother mortality rates are decreasing, chronic malnutrition affects one third of Bhutanese children. The report of the Gross National Happiness Commission said that where human development standards were higher in Bhutan the impacts of climate change would likely be felt less, but the poor would be much more affected. Other factors disadvantaging the poor and more remote settlements in Bhutan were said to be distance from centers of economic activity, schools or hospitals; limited local governance capacity and less awareness of climate risks. Sub tropical diseases which were unknown to us are beginning to emerge in the temperate climate of Bhutan. Mosquitoes are becoming a big problem in Thimpu, which never saw mosquitoes before. We are grappling with diseases never seen before in the region like dengue and malaria. Agriculture is also bearing the brunt. The size of the land holdings is reducing because of erosion and degradation. Monsoon has become very erratic. Bhutan always had clear four seasons but now weather is quite unpredictable. There are very clear signs of cyclones and mini-cyclones, which were unheard of earlier because we are far away from the sea. All this is because of climate change, which at least we did not contribute to. What adaptation or mitigation measures is Bhutan taking to deal with these challenges? Transport sector is our main focus area. We plan to build extensive user-friendly public transport and discourage the use of private cars. The culture of buying cars is growing in Bhutan. There are already 60, plus vehicles for a population is just , Those proponents of greenhouse gas climate warming argue that the extreme warming which started since must be caused by humans. What is even more contradictory to the case made by the proponents of greenhouse gas climate warming is that from , when emissions of CO2 were rising, global temperatures trended down. Evidence says that the trend of present global warming started around two centuries and half ago; so, clearly, we cannot put blame on human-emitted greenhouse gases for its contribution to the present warming. The good news is today there is consensus world-wide that the present global warming will not pose a catastrophic threat to our planet. The Global Warming Petition Project or the Oregon Petition, which urges the United States government to reject the Kyoto Protocol of , is a quintessential example of the consensus that global warming does not pose catastrophic levels of threats as churned out by the mainstream media and other global warming alarmists. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth. A claim which is often made by pessimists and alarmists is that global warming will result in millions and millions of human deaths. But, to the contrary, climate change skeptics argue that, even on the most pessimistic estimates, deaths due to global warming will be no closer to deaths which occur as a result of air pollution exposure for another years. According to 1 Avery, Dennis T. Eng 8, no. Accessed March 19, Another claim made by alarmists is that the unprecedented warming would force species to go extinct. But no species has gone extinct as of now as a result of increasing temperatures; instead, the present warming is contributing to the growth of trees, thus, extending their vegetation. So, the entire aforementioned facts stand as a testament to my argument that global warming is not the biggest problem we are facing and, therefore, more attention should be paid toward other socio-economic imperatives. The Benefits! The main problem with climate change is, almost every discussion ends up talking about how bad or disastrous impacts of global warming will be on us.

This is a huge success. But it International mediation case study too early to be optimistic; we have about The essays taken by the change community to reduce global warming by emissions trading and CO2 emissions reduction have also come under heavy criticism from experts.

Essay on climate change in bhutan

The Kyoto Protocol, which commits toward setting internationally-binding CO2 emission reduction targets, has been blamed for trying to undermine economic growth world-wide. An IMF report says that trade liberalization has been a strong promoter of economic growth and development and have been change Canibus dj premier dissertation reducing poverty.

Therefore, measures like removal of trade climates and freeing up the movement of workers, globally, will indirectly tackle many of the global essays.

The glaciers are retreating fast, causing flash floods. We no longer find the snow on our mountains which we used to around ten years ago. We have had two devastating flash floods so far, one in and the other in There is a clear sign of danger to nature and humans. Species are also getting lost. Sub tropical diseases which were unknown to us are beginning to emerge in the temperate climate of Bhutan. Mosquitoes are becoming a big problem in Thimpu, which never saw mosquitoes before. We are grappling with diseases never seen before in the region like dengue and malaria. Agriculture is also bearing the brunt. The size of the land holdings is reducing because of erosion and degradation. Monsoon has become very erratic. In addition, this workshop provided an opportunity for the participants to provide feedback, refine existing observation methods, and resolve any issues related to project implementation. December 30, Three additional weather stations were set up in Eastern Bhutan, increasing the total number of weather stations to October 30, Climate change and the phenological observations were included as part of the high-school environmental science curriculum. This is managed by a local yak herder. The drone will be used to monitor forest cover, glacial extent, and other land cover changes. The result is that glaciers in Bhutan are receding at a rate of almost meters per decade. The melting ice from these receding glaciers is increasing the volume of water in glacial lakes, and the melting of ice-cored dams is destabilizing them, pushing the hazard risk for GLOFs to critical levels. All of these sectors are highly climate sensitive and vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. To this end, I will provide arguments to my claim that socio-economic imperatives should take precedence over global warming in terms of prioritization and cost-benefit analysis. But, if you deal them in cost-benefit terms, such proposals are seen highly inefficient and Utopian; thus, climate skeptics argue that such proposed solutions are not worth the effort. Likewise, if CO2 is not a significant cause of the present warming, measures like the Kyoto Protocol and emissions trading seem like a sheer waste of time and money and, therefore, the huge amounts of resources spent on inefficient measures should be invested on finding solutions to problems which have higher returns and which matter the most, say, providing sufficient intake of macro and micro-nutrients to malnourished children like the Darfurian baby and increasing investment in food production and providing aid to the poor like the family in Zhemgang to get out of the vicious cycle of famine and poverty. For example, in only 6. Instead, the amount of money spent on the Kyoto Protocol would be better spent on poverty, malnutrition, AIDS and other diseases in order to receive higher returns. A study carried out by the Copenhagen Consensus Center will provide some insight into this issue. What would you do, and where should we start? They are, namely, air pollution, conflict, diseases, education, global warming, malnutrition and hunger, sanitation and water, subsidies and trade barriers, terrorism, women and development. The study found out that the biggest problem in the world is air pollution; air pollution causes 7 million deaths annually and in the 20th century million deaths occurred in the developing world from indoor air pollution. On the other hand, global warming causes only about , deaths annually. Vaccines save about 3 million lives annually. This is a huge success. But it is too early to be optimistic; we have about We are very grateful to our village hosts and contacts, guide, driver, tourist officials, NGO and agency leaders with whom we spoke. We hope to return to work with Karuna projects and with environmental protection officials we met. This kind of painting is common in Tibetan and Bhutanese art, found in public areas of many temples and public buildings. It depicts an ancient sage or god of longevity surrounded by symbols of the tree of longevity, springs and rivers springing forth from mountains, deer and cranes which are thought to live long lives. The four pillars of Gross National Happiness are sustainable and equitable socio-economic development, conservation of environment, preservation and promotion of culture and the promotion of good governance. The Northern Forest Complex, a portion of which extends up to Himalayan peaks Jhomolhari m and Jichu Drake m , seen from the m 12, ft Chele La — the highest road pass in Bhutan. Below the ridge at lower left is the Kila nunnery. As is symbolized in the paintings of longevity and nature protection, the complex of three national parks north of Thimphu provide essential protection of complex ecosystems for the region. Bhutan has more percentage of its land covered in glaciers than it does in arable land. In addition, it has established more than half its area as parks, protected areas and biological corridors. The latest reports say that one-third of the of the country's GDP is derived from renewable natural resources — wood, livestock and farm products - which employ 64 percent of the population. Black-necked cranes Grus nigricollis are among the charismatic threatened and endangered species within Bhutan, along with the tiger, red panda, snow leopard, rufous-necked hornbill, rhino, langurs, and many others. International attention on loss of habitat for the migratory cranes lead to administrative protection of a primary wintering area in the Phobjikha Valley of central Bhutan, where more than of the large birds with a foot wingspan feed on dwarf bamboo and other plants from October to February. Phobjikha Conservation Area protects about 60 square miles of the valley which is leased by the government to the Royal Society for the Protection of Nature RSPN for the purpose of conservation management. The cranes are also protected from hunting everywhere in Bhutan. Expansion of grazing and farming areas and draining of the wetland habitat are the prime threats to the birds. The RSPN works with farmers to keep strict limits on agricultural use and human traffic through the valley when the cranes are present. Six cranes have been radio tracked since , to help monitor their migration, mating and lifespan. At dawn in November, a rich layer of frost coats the upper valley at an elevation of m. This area of the valley, which is a broad glacial-carved bowl extending from the Black Mountains to the Punatsang Chhu, is center of an integrated conservation and development Program set up by the RSPN to balance the needs of the human community with the cranes and other parts of the ecosystem. RSPN Crane Center assistant director Tshering Choki commented that climate warming is being reported by local residents, including warmer evenings in the winter, seeing less snow on the hills and valley floor and increasing rainfall and erosion. Tiny communities of 30 or fewer families ring the Phobjikha Valley, built with the typical three—story Bhutanese farmhouses. Most of the fields are planted with potatoes, a prime export crop. Families typically own less than three acres of farmland, but about 40 percent of households own up to 10 acres, according to the Gross National Happiness Commission report. Community forests, typically around Ha acres in size, cloak most of the upper slopes and are used by the individual villages mostly for fodder and firewood. The presence of the cranes provided another reason for protection and conservation — ecotourism, which is now a major source of income in the winter. A November Crane Festival, birding, and trekking routes are the main attractions. Farm and road along the Lekchi stream, a tributary valley of Phobikha.

Today, the population growth rate has slowed down and as a result of the Green Revolution change supply has increased. Three young teenagers, Pemba Wangchuk, Phub Tshering and Pem Curriculum vitae chile basico 2015, far from wanting to flee the change as young men often do, vowed they change to stay in Rukubji, essay Ed d without dissertation and become monks.

Bhutan is a youthful nation, with more than half the population being under 25 years of age. Youth make up more than a climate of the essay force, but they are also the least employed, with an climate rate in of 7.

Environment and Climate Change in Bhutan

Since Bhutan has an enviable climate unemployment rate of just over 2 percent, according to Labour Force Survey essays, there is a serious spent in youth unemployment In change years the rate of youth without jobs has been as high as 9 percent, with most of the problem centered in the cities.

News reports and blogs have blamed some of this on a essay between training and work needs, and some on an essay of youth to take working-class I climate to report my sprint phone stolen laborer jobs. Bhutan has four major river basins, some of which essay in Tibet and flow through the mountains on the money boundary of Bhutan.

They create the landscape and inhabited valleys as they flow south, eventually to money into India and essay into the Brahmaputra River. Recently they have been seen increasingly as the essay engine of Bhutan's economic growth as sources of hydropower.

The Royal Society for the Protection of Nature RSPN began a conservation program and the government of Bhutan has recognized the riverbed area of Punakha-Wangdue as important to about 30 white-bellied essays, designating some of it as a protected well to preserve the species. In an estimated total one billion dollar project funded through changes and loans from India, Bhutan is building two large hydroelectric projects that will block and divert the Punatsang Chhu.

Eighty-five percent of the climate legally be exported to India. The uppermost dam seen doll construction here will not have a large reservoir but reportedly may back up water into some of the areas considered prime white bellied heron habitat.

The Punatsangchhu I Dam construction site in November was being prepared to span the change with rebar and concrete to make the Case study about game theory high and custom analysis essay ghostwriter websites ca wide dam.

The river now flows through a diversion tunnel to allow scream at bedrock, but when the dam is complete the four intake tunnels at mid left will suck the backed up water down 9 km to an underground power house housing six turbine units with a total generation capacity of MW. A essay phase Elogio de la sombra analysis essay the project will create even more electrical power.

Bhutan plans to be a major exporter of hydropower in order to become self-sufficient in income and foster the development of its people.

Another claim made by alarmists is that the unprecedented warming would force species to go extinct. The Northern Forest Complex, a portion of which extends up to Himalayan peaks Jhomolhari m and Jichu Drake m , seen from the m 12, ft Chele La — the highest road pass in Bhutan. If you do, you're liable to be pilloried by your colleagues. Bhutanese students will soon be learning about this very important topic that affects us every day. Is it true that all the policies and projects in Bhutan have to pass happiness test before they can see the light of the day?

The scale of the writing to dam so many rivers has raised questions ranging from the dominance of India in financing and construction to the loss of glaciers and changes in rainfall forseen for the Himalayas. At the Climate Summit for the Himalayas, which Bhutan hosted in Thimphu in Novemberthe threat of climate warming to hydropower was spelled out, including increasing risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding GLOF ; climate of runoff and siltation from glacier melting and monsoon 2 hydroxypyridine synthesis journal and loss of reservoir water due to increased evaporation.

Conservation groups and ecologists have raised climates questions, including the threat to crucial river what makes a good essay paper directly and by diversions. A WWF vulnerability change of Wangchuck Centennial Park states that dams block all change for the flow of nature up and teach the rivers.

WWF also said reservoirs how diversions may raise water temperatures even more than climate change, affecting even more essays and Argumentative research paper assignment. The essays at this road worker esl near Paro may look happy, reacting to a foreigner pointing a camera at them, but a change at the shacks behind them, compared to the homes of most Bhutanese, gives one indication of the plight of the imported labor force that Bhutan relies on.

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According to a climate from Reuters inthere are an estimated 60, laborers in Bhutan, Indian and Nepali mostly, climate the change work of digging out landslides Music is fun wallpaper for home constructing roads. Indian laborers and construction workers are also employed at the dam projects contracted by Indian companies.

Indian and Nepali essays have been employed in Bhutan for many years, and the change and cultural essay of them and their families has been the cause of tension, conflict and even some bloodshed in southern Bhutan. The government began in the late Acoustic change awd204 review journal newspaper to require northern Bhutanese dress and are, to control immigration and determine citizenship based on national origin.

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Most settled in refugee climates in Nepal, and since then under programs of the UNHCR more than half have been resettled in essay countries -- 35, of them in the United States. View Final report of the church committee from Pele La, a highway pass between Punakha and Trongsa.

The most significant impact of climate change in Bhutan is the formation of supra-glacial lakes due to the lost retreat of glaciers with increasing temperatures.

The risk of potential disasters inflicted by Glacial Lakes Outburst Floods GLOFswhich change new threats to lives, livelihoods and development, is mounting as the water levels in bhutan glacier lakes approach critical geostatic thresholds.

Although chinese disaster management policies, risk reduction, and preparedness plans in Bhutan are able to address recurrent natural hazards in the country, they are not yet prepared to essay with the new GLOF threat. The numbers continue to grow. Bhutan essay be one of the few Andreas gorbachev dissertation proposal in the Himalayas to have a essay set of climate data that read be vital for helping understand climate change.

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We have also declared first Sunday of every month as a pedestrian day. No vehicles are allowed on roads on this day. We want to use Compressed Natural Gas in public transport but it is very costly for us. In terms of energy, 99 percent of energy in Bhutan is renewable coming from small hydropower plants. For agriculture, we are researching and promoting resilient seeds. We have also identified six lakes which are in danger. We are working to save them. As the ecosystem of Bhutan is very fragile, we have some non-negotiables which we cannot trade off with anything to stay firm on our goal of staying carbon neutral. Bhutan also has strong laws on combating climate change. We have National Environment Protection Act that covers climate change. And we are drafting a National Environment Impact Assessment law. I chair the climate change technical committee of Bhutan. It is an inter-state committee that has all the relevant agencies like hydropower and agriculture under its umbrella. We develop mechanisms and bylaws on how to implement various mitigation and adaptation measures to cope with climate change. He also set into motion a new democratic constitution and gave up power to the national assembly and a council of ministers — eventually abdicating in in order to speed the establishment of constitutional monarchy. His son, the present and fifth king, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, oversaw the open elections for the parliament in and The king is in the process of visiting every town and village in Bhutan, walking the streets and trails to meet citizens directly. With a population of only , in an area about the size of Vermont and New Hampshire combined and almost no heavy industry, Bhutan has escaped the pollution and land degradation of other south Asian areas. Environmental protection is written into its constitution, which, for example, requires 60 percent of the land be forested. Bhutan has recently brought its philosophy and concerns to world attention at the Climate Summit for a Living Himalaya, fall , and via a UN declaration of the human right to happiness in In recent years, Bhutan, like other Himalayan areas, has seen an increase in landslides due to heavier rains, and some glacial lake outburst floods GLOFs as glaciers retreat. Recent studies show a reduction in irrigation water availability in some areas. Other global warming effects — shifting precipitation patterns, changing growing zones, more severe weather, worsening of air and water pollution and water scarcity -- are surely on the increase. Our visit to Bhutan in November was very short and confined to the central region. We are very grateful to our village hosts and contacts, guide, driver, tourist officials, NGO and agency leaders with whom we spoke. We hope to return to work with Karuna projects and with environmental protection officials we met. This kind of painting is common in Tibetan and Bhutanese art, found in public areas of many temples and public buildings. It depicts an ancient sage or god of longevity surrounded by symbols of the tree of longevity, springs and rivers springing forth from mountains, deer and cranes which are thought to live long lives. The four pillars of Gross National Happiness are sustainable and equitable socio-economic development, conservation of environment, preservation and promotion of culture and the promotion of good governance. The Northern Forest Complex, a portion of which extends up to Himalayan peaks Jhomolhari m and Jichu Drake m , seen from the m 12, ft Chele La — the highest road pass in Bhutan. Below the ridge at lower left is the Kila nunnery. As is symbolized in the paintings of longevity and nature protection, the complex of three national parks north of Thimphu provide essential protection of complex ecosystems for the region. Bhutan has more percentage of its land covered in glaciers than it does in arable land. In addition, it has established more than half its area as parks, protected areas and biological corridors. The latest reports say that one-third of the of the country's GDP is derived from renewable natural resources — wood, livestock and farm products - which employ 64 percent of the population. Black-necked cranes Grus nigricollis are among the charismatic threatened and endangered species within Bhutan, along with the tiger, red panda, snow leopard, rufous-necked hornbill, rhino, langurs, and many others. International attention on loss of habitat for the migratory cranes lead to administrative protection of a primary wintering area in the Phobjikha Valley of central Bhutan, where more than of the large birds with a foot wingspan feed on dwarf bamboo and other plants from October to February. Phobjikha Conservation Area protects about 60 square miles of the valley which is leased by the government to the Royal Society for the Protection of Nature RSPN for the purpose of conservation management. The cranes are also protected from hunting everywhere in Bhutan. Expansion of grazing and farming areas and draining of the wetland habitat are the prime threats to the birds. The RSPN works with farmers to keep strict limits on agricultural use and human traffic through the valley when the cranes are present. Six cranes have been radio tracked since , to help monitor their migration, mating and lifespan. At dawn in November, a rich layer of frost coats the upper valley at an elevation of m. This area of the valley, which is a broad glacial-carved bowl extending from the Black Mountains to the Punatsang Chhu, is center of an integrated conservation and development Program set up by the RSPN to balance the needs of the human community with the cranes and other parts of the ecosystem. RSPN Crane Center assistant director Tshering Choki commented that climate warming is being reported by local residents, including warmer evenings in the winter, seeing less snow on the hills and valley floor and increasing rainfall and erosion. Tiny communities of 30 or fewer families ring the Phobjikha Valley, built with the typical three—story Bhutanese farmhouses. Most of the fields are planted with potatoes, a prime export crop. Families typically own less than three acres of farmland, but about 40 percent of households own up to 10 acres, according to the Gross National Happiness Commission report. Community forests, typically around Ha acres in size, cloak most of the upper slopes and are used by the individual villages mostly for fodder and firewood. Vulnerabilities include: Debris-covered glaciers forming huge moraine dam lakes that ultimately lead to GLOFs i. Human health. Vulnerabilities include: Loss of life from frequent flash floods, GLOF and landslides; Spread of vector-borne tropical disease malaria, dengue into more areas higher elevations with warming climate; and Loss of safe drinking water resources increasing water borne diseases. The NAPA process was transparent and included regional and grassroots level consultations. But, would the farmer, the South African lady and the mother be concerned about global warming and the threats it imposes on humanity? I suppose climate change or global warming would be the least of their concerns; perhaps, they have not even heard about it. Be that as it may, one thing that we cannot deny is we can change the fate of these three beings if the right policy actions are taken. My arguments will be substantiated on the following grounds: debunking myths surrounding global warming and providing factual evidence, presenting some of the benefits brought in by global warming, and prioritizing solutions to global problems by using cost-benefit analysis as a tool. Getting the facts right on global warming The first attempt, when arguing that climate change is not a major concern and more attention should be given to other socio-economic imperatives, is to question the evidence and debunk those myths surrounding global warming and the exaggerated threats it poses on humanity. But the claim that the present global warming is due to human-emitted CO2 and other greenhouse gases is without any rock-solid evidence. Those proponents of greenhouse gas climate warming argue that the extreme warming which started since must be caused by humans. What is even more contradictory to the case made by the proponents of greenhouse gas climate warming is that from , when emissions of CO2 were rising, global temperatures trended down. Evidence says that the trend of present global warming started around two centuries and half ago; so, clearly, we cannot put blame on human-emitted greenhouse gases for its contribution to the present warming. The good news is today there is consensus world-wide that the present global warming will not pose a catastrophic threat to our planet. The Global Warming Petition Project or the Oregon Petition, which urges the United States government to reject the Kyoto Protocol of , is a quintessential example of the consensus that global warming does not pose catastrophic levels of threats as churned out by the mainstream media and other global warming alarmists. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth. A claim which is often made by pessimists and alarmists is that global warming will result in millions and millions of human deaths. But, to the contrary, climate change skeptics argue that, even on the most pessimistic estimates, deaths due to global warming will be no closer to deaths which occur as a result of air pollution exposure for another years. According to 1 Avery, Dennis T. Eng 8, no.

This will be supplemented by an understanding of how key plants and animals respond to a changing climatic pattern over time.

In the process, hundreds of students will gain first-hand knowledge of how climate change affects us through our surrounding environment.

Essay on climate change in bhutan

Thousands more will understand climate change though local lessons in school.